sampling methodology

In fact,even when implementing technologies and products already available elsewhere,firms still need a workforce with the appropriate skills and knowledge. We found that firms that provide even minimal formal training to employees are7.5an...


   In fact,even when implementing technologies and products already available elsewhere,firms still need a workforce with the appropriate skills and knowledge.

   We found that firms that provide even minimal formal training to employees are7.5and7.7percentage points more likely to introduce a new product and implement a new process,respectively.

   The World Bank Enterprise Surveys,on the other hand,have somewhat less detailed indicators of innovation and human capital,but cover a substantial number of developing Asian economies.

   While firm-level surveys exist for several developing Asian economies with detailed information on innovative activity and human capital,differences in survey instruments,sampling methodology,and population of inference make cross-country analysis extremely challenging.

   And to a lesser extent in process innovation,suggesting that different aspects of human capital matter to different types of innovation.

   This supports the argument that firm-level training can update or upgrade employees’knowledge,and more importantly,provide employees with specific knowledge not learned from general education.

  这外明,企业层面的培训能够更新或升迁员工的知识,更重要的是,为员工挑供他们在清淡哺育中异国学到的特意知识。

   It is commonly understood that one of the key ingredients of innovation inputs include training and human capital,defined as the skills,knowledge and experience of a work force.

  同时,吾们的钻研效果还表现,相比幼型企业,大中型企业通知推出新产品的能够性别离高出4.6和7.4个百分点,通知实走新工艺的能够性别离高出7.1和11.8个百分点。

  研发支出与创新收获呈正向相关。企业若投资于研发运动,其通知推出新产品的能够性将高出34.8个百分点,通知实走新工艺的能够性将高出38.4个百分点。

  来源:经济日报.外企头条做事室朱琳(本文图片由亚洲开发银走挑供)

   Data is usually a key issue when it comes to examining innovation and its determinants,particularly in a developing country context.

  鉴于人力资本对创新的重要性已得到普及认可,吾们决定操纵涵盖27个亚洲发展中国家的企业层面数据(包括约2.7万家企业)进走更深层的探讨。

   Given this broad context on the importance of human capital for innovation,we decided to probe deeper using firm level data covering27developing countries in Asia,including about27,000firms.

   This was conducted as background work forAsian Development Outlook2020:What Drives Innovation in Asia?

   We use the World Bank Enterprise Surveys to explore the relationship between a firm’s propensity to innovate and its human capital, 澳门赌博现金网投注平台proxied by employee educational attainment, 澳门赌博官方平台网站employee training, 澳门线上真人赌博平台and industry-specific experience of the top manager, 澳门赌博游戏在线开户

   While policies such as research and development tax credits and direct public funding may boost innovation in the short run,increasing the stock of human capital is more effective in the long run.

  人们远大认为,创新投入的关键要素包括培训和人力资本,即员工的技能、知识和经验。

  在审阅创新及其决定因素时,数据清淡是一个关键题目,稀奇是在发展中国家。

  请看详细报道

   In sum,we show that a firm’s human capital—proxied by the percentage of the workforce with high school education,managerial experience,and employer-sponsored training—is positively and significantly associated with the likelihood of engaging in product innovation.

  效果再次发现,对于不存在重要或特意重要的技能节制的企业,培训可使其推出新产品的能够性挑高6.6个百分点。而对于存在技能节制的企业,澳门永利真人网投游戏培训可使这一能够性挑高12.4个百分点。

  另一方面,固然世界银走企业调查数据库相关创新和人力资本的指标某栽水平上不足详细,但涵盖了相等数目的亚洲发展中经济体。

   Our findings suggest that employer-sponsored training may be a mechanism to compensate for the constraints resulting from an inadequately educated workforce.

   R&D expenditure is positively associated with innovative outcomes—firms that spend on R&D activities are34.8percentage points more likely to report a new product and38.4percentage points more likely to report a new process.

  吾们操纵世走数据库来追求企业创新倾向与其人力资本(指标包括员工的哺育水平、员工培训和高管的走业经验)之间的相关。

   We also explore whether offering training to employees becomes more relevant when firms face constraints to their operations due to inadequately skilled workers.

   Firm-level training can update or upgrade employees’knowledge,and more importantly,provide employees with specific knowledge not learned from general education.

  总之,吾们的钻研外明,企业的人力资本(指标包括拥有高中学历的员工比例、管理者的经验和雇主赞助的培训上)与企业产品创新能够性存在隐晦的正向相关。

  而与工艺流程创新能够性的正向相关不太隐晦,这外明人力资本的分别要素会对分别类型的创新产生分别的影响。

  受过卓异培训的员工更有能够促进公司创新。即使是只为员工挑供最基本培训的企业,其推出新产品和实走新工艺流程的能够性也会高出近8个百分点。

   Once again,we find that training is associated with an increase in the likelihood of introducing a new product by6.6percentage points for firms that do not face severe or very severe skills constraints,and12.4percentage points for skills-constrained firms.

  同时,出口型企业通知推出新产品或工艺创新的能够性比仅面向国内市场的企业高出约3.2个百分点。

  固然在一些亚洲发展中经济体,公司层面的调查挑供了关于创新运动和人力资本的详细新闻,但原由调查工具、抽样手段和臆测总体方面的迥异,跨国分析仍极具挑衅性。

  吾们还调查了雇主赞助的培训是否与通知存在技能节制的企业的创新运动具有更高相关性。

  人力资本可深化企业接收及开发新知识的能力,所以是前沿创新和追赶创新的重要构成片面。

   Human capital strengthens the capacity of a firm to absorb and develop new knowledge and as such it is an essential part of both frontier and catch-up innovation.

  在钻研企业创新时,这栽相关是很重要的企业属性,但却频繁被无视。

   A well-trained workforce is more likely to spur innovation at companies.Firms that provide even minimal training to employees are nearly8percentage points more likely to introduce a new product and implement a new process.

  创新,在商业周围被狭义地定义为改进一栽产品或服务。各栽数据外明,受过卓异培训的员工更有能够促进公司创新。今天,吾们推出亚洲开发银走行家撰写的文章《人力资本在创新中发挥什么作用?》

  吾们还探讨了当企业因技术工人欠缺导致营业受限时,挑供员工培训是否会变得更添重要。

  拥有高中学历的员工比例即使显现“特意幼”的挑高,企业推出新产品的能够性也将挑高0.042个百分点,而高管经验会使这一能够性挑高1.5个百分点。

  固然从短期来看,减免研发税收和直接公共资助等政策可促进创新,但从永远来看,增补人力资本存量更富有收获。

   Innovation at the company level matters tremendously for competitiveness and sustainability and a country’s long-term growth prospects.

  企业培训能够更新或升迁员工的知识,更重要的是,为员工挑供他们在清淡哺育中异国学到的特意知识。

  吾们发现,即便是只为员工挑供最基本培训的企业,其推出新产品和实走新工艺流程的能够性也会高出别离挑高7.5和7.7个百分点。

  企业创新对企业的竞争力和可不息性至关重要,对于国家的永远添长前景意义宏大。

  钻研效果表现,雇主赞助的培训能够行为一栽机制,弥补员工因受哺育不能所存在的技能节制。

  原形上,即使是推走其他地方已有的技术和产品,企业照样必要具备正当技能和知识的员工。

  这项钻研是为通知《2020年亚洲发展瞻看:亚洲创新的驱动力来自那里?》进走的背景做事。

   We also investigated whether employer-sponsored training is more strongly associated with innovative activity for firms reporting skill constraints.

   which is a neglected but important firm attribute when studying innovation.

   A“very small”increase in the share of the workforce with high school education is associated with an increase in the likelihood of introducing a new product by0.042percentage points,and the top manager’s experience is associated with an increase in this likelihood by1.5percentage points.

   Firms that export,meanwhile,are about3.2percentage points more likely to report a new product or process innovation than firms selling only to the domestic markets.

   Meanwhile,ourfindingsalso show that medium and large firms are about4.6and7.4percentage points more likely to report a new product,and7.1and11.8percentage points more likely to report a new process than small-sized firms,respectively.

  原标题:张文宏寄语毕业生:充满不确定性的世界是最好的舞台

原标题:绝地求生游戏 开着车载音响 听着漂移开始了撸啊撸

,,手机能赚钱的麻将游戏合集

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